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Analytical and Computer Methods in Foundation Engineering by Joseph E. Bowles

By Joseph E. Bowles

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This is a simplified explanation of what happens in fluid flow. When velocity varies between adjacent fluid elements, frictional resistance occurs internally. Viscosity is a measure of this frictional resistance. It is the proportionality constant between shear stress in adjacent layers of a fluid and the associated velocity change between those layers. 6 we can see that if ␮ is large, then shear stress between fluid elements is large. When shear stress is large, which makes viscosity large, the fluid has a greater ability to resist movement.

New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-01310-2. 3 Minor Losses 54 General Energy Equation 56 The Orifice 58 INTRODUCTION Fluid flow is the study of fluid in motion, which is also called fluid dynamics. Dynamics is commonly broken into two parts: kinematics and kinetics. Kinematics is the part of dynamics that deals with distance, velocity, acceleration, and time. Kinematics does not answer the question of why the motion occurs, but instead describes the motion of the body in terms of translation and rotation.

The internal motion can also be described as relative motion between adjacent layers of fluid elements. The Greek letter ␮ (mu, pronounced ‘‘mew’’) is the common symbol used to represent viscosity, which is more properly referred to as dynamic viscosity. The concepts of shear stress are used to explain and define viscosity. The Greek letter ␶ (tau, pronounced like ‘‘cow’’ with a t instead of c) is used to represent shear stress. 1. If we hold the outer drum stationary and rotate the inner drum with a constant velocity in a counter-clockwise direction, we can observe a velocity profile in the trapped fluid along line A–B, with the stationary surface at B and the constant velocity surface at A.

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