Hydraulics

Analytical and Computer Methods in Foundation Engineering by Joseph E. Bowles

By Joseph E. Bowles

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Extra resources for Analytical and Computer Methods in Foundation Engineering

Example text

This is a simpliﬁed explanation of what happens in ﬂuid ﬂow. When velocity varies between adjacent ﬂuid elements, frictional resistance occurs internally. Viscosity is a measure of this frictional resistance. It is the proportionality constant between shear stress in adjacent layers of a ﬂuid and the associated velocity change between those layers. 6 we can see that if ␮ is large, then shear stress between ﬂuid elements is large. When shear stress is large, which makes viscosity large, the ﬂuid has a greater ability to resist movement.

New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-01310-2. 3 Minor Losses 54 General Energy Equation 56 The Oriﬁce 58 INTRODUCTION Fluid ﬂow is the study of ﬂuid in motion, which is also called ﬂuid dynamics. Dynamics is commonly broken into two parts: kinematics and kinetics. Kinematics is the part of dynamics that deals with distance, velocity, acceleration, and time. Kinematics does not answer the question of why the motion occurs, but instead describes the motion of the body in terms of translation and rotation.

The internal motion can also be described as relative motion between adjacent layers of ﬂuid elements. The Greek letter ␮ (mu, pronounced ‘‘mew’’) is the common symbol used to represent viscosity, which is more properly referred to as dynamic viscosity. The concepts of shear stress are used to explain and deﬁne viscosity. The Greek letter ␶ (tau, pronounced like ‘‘cow’’ with a t instead of c) is used to represent shear stress. 1. If we hold the outer drum stationary and rotate the inner drum with a constant velocity in a counter-clockwise direction, we can observe a velocity proﬁle in the trapped ﬂuid along line A–B, with the stationary surface at B and the constant velocity surface at A.