By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized clinical imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photographs of the human physique, with titanic distinction among varieties of gentle tissue. the long-lasting legacy of CT is, despite the fact that, the spur that it gave to the next creation of tomographic imaging recommendations into diagnostic nuclear drugs and the terribly speedy improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This booklet is a non-mathematical creation to the foundations underlying smooth scientific imaging, taking tomography as its primary subject matter. the 1st 3 chapters disguise the final rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins sleek imaging, and a overview of the main concerns serious about radiation defense. the following chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The medical position of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional medical histories. 3 appendices offer a extra mathematical heritage to the tomographic approach, the foundations of mathematical Fourier tools, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version comprises new introductory sections at the proper physics of molecules more often than not, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. numerous figures have additionally been revised.
The publication is meant to supply a extensive introductory historical past to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate taking into account focusing on scientific physics, and the clinical scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic options in examine and scientific perform.
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Extra resources for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
CT has also become a standard tool in the planning of cancer radiation treatment. The CT image often provides a clear definition of the extent of the tumour and its disposition with respect to Introduction xli surrounding healthy tissue. The intrinsically digital format of CT allows the radiologist to calculate optimum paths for the therapy beams to deliver a lethal dose to the cancer but spare healthy tissue. CT has some important drawbacks: it entails a relatively large dose of ionising radiation to the patient and there are practical limits on spatial resolution brought about by the very small differences in X-ray contrast between different types of soft tissue.
MRI is deliberately set up to acquire the data in the first place as a K-space map. Once a good K map has been obtained then it is a relatively simple matter to recombine the waves and recover a picture of the original slice. First the connections between 12 Principles of Medical Imaging projections, their K-space representation and the K-space map of the slice have to be established through the central slice theorem. The Central Slice Theorem The Fourier solution to the tomography problem relies on the central slice theorem.
At every angle there will be one line of sight that passes through the m cell. Since this is true of all the box numbers, we can think of the reconstruction algorithm simply as a way of solving a set of simultaneous equations. In this case we have 25 numbers and this requires 25 equations to get a solution. If we were only dealing with very small arrays then the reconstruction could proceed in this manner. In a real application, providing a spatial resolution of a few mm in a cross-section of the human torso, the size of the array will be 256 × 256 or larger.