By Kasugai, Yu; Machtoub, Lina
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Additional info for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : advances and perspectives of neuro-nanomedicine
However, the involvement machtoub–ALS October 23, 2015 12:42 PSP Book - 9in x 6in machtoub–ALS ALS Neuroimaging Features of the regions with probable electrophysiological evidence of LMN degeneration or one region with probable and one region with possible electrophysiological evidence of LMN degeneration carries the same weight as one region with deﬁnite evidence of LMN degeneration in upgrading the certainty of diagnosis of ALS. A single region with electrophysiological evidence of probable LMN degeneration or two regions with electrophysiological evidence of possible LMN degeneration can be used to upgrade the certainty of the diagnosis of ALS from possible ALS to probable ALS, but not from probable ALS to deﬁnite ALS.
Many of the studies relied on self-reporting by questionnaires. Self-reports can allow a recall bias—I have this disease, what did I do to produce it— that has the potential to artiﬁcially inﬂate the data. Some support for an association between ALS and exposure to organic solvents appears in epidemiological studies, yet these have found only weak association and a mix of positive and negative results. As well, no consistent associations with ALS have emerged from investigation into the potential role of radiation and electromagnetic ﬁelds.
9. ) 10. spondylotic myelopathy (painless myelopathy with no sensory signs, stabilization or progression post surgery) ALS variants must meet the clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging criteria for possible, probable, or deﬁnite ALS. 6 ALS Electrophysiological Features Patients with suspected, possible, probable, or deﬁnite ALS on clinical grounds should have electrophysiological studies performed to conﬁrm LMN degeneration in clinically aﬀected regions, to ﬁnd electrophysiological evidence of LMN degeneration in clinically uninvolved regions, and to exclude other pathophysiological processes.