By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch
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The application of these lower Copyright © 2001 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Power Delivery Systems 41 voltages for anything more than very local distribution at the neighborhood level results in unacceptably high electrical losses and high costs. 4. It is costly to change voltage level - not prohibitively so, for it is done throughout a power system (that's what transformers do) - but voltage transformation is a major expense, which does nothing to move the power any distance in and of itself.
The sensitivity of the system service quality to other problems increases exponentially. In particular, problems are encountered with partial failures, configuration complexity and load forecast sensitivity, which are discussed in further detail in the following paragraphs. Partial failures Contingency-based methods such as N-l are basically "zero-one" models of failure: a unit of equipment is modeled as completely in, or completely out of service. But modern power systems often encounter partial failures or operating constraints of some components: • A transformer may be in service but its tap changer has been diagnosed as problematic and is locked in one position.
When configuration becomes more complex, as it does in most cases where adequate levels of reliability are being sought when utilization rates are high, the interaction of configuration and reliability is non-trivial and not intuitively obvious. Candidate plans that look like they will provide an improvement can, in fact be less reliable overall. N-1 methods cannot assess, nor provide good feedback to engineers on the interaction of configuration with actual customer-level reliability. For this reason they leave a gap in the engineer-planner's understanding of the system being designed.