System Theory

Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive by Lorenzo Magnani

By Lorenzo Magnani

This quantity explores abductive cognition, a massive yet, at the least till the 3rd sector of the final century, overlooked subject in cognition. The booklet goals at expanding wisdom approximately inventive and professional inferences. The examine of those high-levelmethods of abductive reasoning is positioned on the crossroads of philosophy, good judgment, epistemology, synthetic intelligence, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, animal cognition and evolutionary theories; that's, on the center of cognitive technological know-how. Philosophers of technology within the 20th century have normally individual among the inferential tactics lively within the good judgment of discovery and those energetic within the good judgment of justification. such a lot have concluded that no good judgment of inventive methods exists and, additionally, rational version of discovery is most unlikely. in brief, medical artistic inferences are irrational and there's no “reasoning” to hypotheses. however, a little research within the zone of synthetic intelligence has proven that tools for discovery may be chanced on which are computationally sufficient for rediscovering – or gaining knowledge of for the 1st time – empirical or theoretical legislation and theorems.

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This is irrelevant in medical diagnosis where instead the task is to “select” from an encyclopedia of pre-stored diagnostic entities. We can call both inferences ampliative, selective and creative, because in both cases the reasoning involved amplifies, or goes beyond, the information incorporated in the premises [Magnani, 1992]. All we can expect of our “selective” abduction, is that it tends to produce hypotheses for further examination that have some chance of turning out to be the best explanation.

Such theories are usually generalized in many directions: first of all by showing that explanations entail their conclusions only in a defeasible way (there are many potential explanations), thus joining the whole area of so-called nonmonotonic logic or of probabilistic treatments; second, trying to show how some of the explanations are relatively implausible, elaborating suitable technical tools (for example in terms of modal logic) able to capture the notion of preference among explanations (cf.

The model is consistent with the Peircean view about the various stages of scientific inquiry in terms of “hypothesis” generation, deduction (prediction), and induction. The type of inference called abduction was also studied by Aristotelian syllo, and later on by medieval reworkers of syllogism. 5. 13 As eration of new hypotheses, are sometimes called reduction, that is 12 13 Cf. [Frankfurt, 1958; Reilly, 1970; Fann, 1970; Davis, 1972; Ayim, 1974; Anderson, 1986; Anderson, 1987; Kapitan, 1990; Hookway, 1992; Debrok, 1997; Roesler, 1997; Wirth, 1997].

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