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A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Extra resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides

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In many cases, a national laboratory may issue a national standard based on a relative measurement in, for example, a calibrated ionization chamber, while a university or commercial laboratory may produce an "in-housen standard by a direct method of measurement such as coincidence counting. It is, however, more important to describe the method of preparation and measurement, whether direct or indirect (or rehtiue), and to characterize a radioactivity standard fully with regard to purity and estimated uncertainty in an accompanying statement or certificate.

4 Output-Pulse Processing As outlined above, the electron-multiplier phototube embodies two functions that are essential to the performance of a scintillation detector: (1) the detection and conversion of the light emitted by the phosphor into a pulse of electrons; and (2) the amplification of this minute amount of current to a level that can be suitably handled in conventional electronic-amplifier circuits. The amplification of the initial number of photoelectrons emitted from the photocathode of the tube is accomplished by a process of electron multiplication.

Inorganic phosphors are mainly limited to alkali halides in crystalline form. 4 SCINTILLATION DETECTORS / 35 36 / 2. PHYSICS OF SOME RADIATION DETECTORS the crystal lattice. Thallium is employed as an activator in NaI and CsI, being introduced as an impurity when the crystal is grown from the molten state. Bismuth germanate (BGO) and cadmium tungstate (CdW04)are intrinsic scintillators and require no activators. 5) where p(t) is the total number of photons emitted a t time t. The decay time T is characteristic of the scintillator and determines the rise time of pulses produced a t the output of the phototube.

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